call it, and another name for it is Gong”. The first name in the description was a Qiuci word (or an altered Indian word from Qiuci language). The word“Shamen” or “Sangmen” in Chinese was also transcribed from Yanqi language. The Buddhist terms in early Chinese translations (Eastern Han Dynasty or Three-State Period) came through the media of ancient Central Asian languages, such as Tocharian, instead of direct translation from Sanskrit or Pali. In Tocharian there were also many words borrowed from Chinese, such as “cane” (“qian” in Chinese, meaning money), “tau” (“dou” in Chinese, a unit of measure for grain), and “sakes” (“shao jiu” in Chinese, meaning a kind of liquor)å. Since those who spoke and wrote Yanqi-Qiuci language lived in the Western Regions, where various ancient civilizations met, it was only natural for this language to mix with languages of other peoples.
Sogdian script, also known as Serik script, was a writing system for the Sogdian tongue and originated from Aramaic script. Sogdian^ a tongue of the eastern branch of the Iranian subgroup the Indo-European family of languages, prevailed in the Zelafshan river valley in Central Asia at least no later than the 6th century BC and its script was abandoned after the Mongols entered Central Asia in the 13th century. The Sogdian people were good at trade and served as significant intermediary on the international trade route in Central Asia, hence their language became the lingua franca in that region, exerting major bearing on the language system of some ethnic groups and countries.
The Turks used to adopt Sogdian as their official language. So did the Uighurs immediately afer they founded Uighur Khanate. Later on, on the basis of Sogdian, the Uighurs invented the Uighur/ Huihu script, which then evolved into Uighur-style Mongolian. Uighur Mongolian had a derivative, Manchu language, which was the origin of Xibe script. Sogdian was the basis or origin of all those
later scripts, which was a typical footnote to the inter-assimilation of cultures of different ethnic groups in the Western Regions.
Sogdian was found everywhere along the Silk Road, both within and without China. A number of 8th-century Sogdian documents were found at the site of Muge Mountain in Tajikistan. Hundreds of pieces of Sogdian markings were discovered on the cliff along the ancient Silk Road at the upper reach of the Indus River. Sogdian language was also spot on the Memorial www.viajeporchina.com agencia to Mugan Tegin near Bugute in Mongolia. A lot of Sogdian-script relics were also found within China, among which were 8 Sogdian correspondences written in early 4th century discovered at the beacon tower site of the Han Dynasty Great Wall in Dunhuang, which were the oldest Sogdian documents found up to now. Many Sogdian-language Sutras were found at the Sutra Cave in Dunhuang.
Xinjiang was where most Sogdian documents were discovered. Stone men with Sogdian inscriptions were found in front of the mausoleum of Western Turki Khan on the northern bank of Tekes River in Ili at the Tianshan Mountains. From Loulan to Khotan, many commercial Sogdian documents were found in ancient relic sites. From Turpan discovered Sogdian contracts and other secular documents as well as religious classics in Sogdian, including those on Buddhism, Nestorianism and Manicheism The Sogdian documents found in Xinjiang had a long time span, including those both before and afer the westward movement of the Uighur Khanate in 840 AD.